Cuza was born on March 20, 1820 in the city of Barlad. His father was Ioan Cuza and came from an old family of boyars with administrative functions in Moldavia. His mother was Sultana Cozadini part of a Greek-Italian family from Constantinople. Young Alexandru had a good education in boarding school, studying in Iasi under Victor Cuenin Frenchman. He took high school diploma in Paris and started the Law and Medicine but didn’t finish its.

Entered as a president in District Court of Covurului (1849 – 1851; 1855 – 1856) and got married with Elena Rosetti on April 30, 1844. Miss Elena was the daughter of a Minister for Foreign Affairs and the sister of Theodor Rosetti. Because Elena Rosetti couldn’t have kids, Cuza bear away from her and found a mistress named Maria Obrenovici. She gave him two sons that were raised by his wife. Cuza didn’t drink a lot, but he loved coffee and card games.

Cuza was chosen the ruler of Moldavia on January 5, 1859 and in Wallachia on January 24, in the same year. In Moldavia he was chosen without a division and in Wallachia, because now one heard about him, this situation was discussed in Hotel Concordia. A day later he was chosen with one voice in Wallachia. The phenomenon of the United Principalities could be done thanks to the favorable international context. Because of the wars and other problems Austria and Turkey accept double election of Cuza.

He initiated a series of internal procedures aimed at unifying the state apparatus through administrative arrangements. Cuza united: post, the monetary, military, centralize administration and the telegraph. Customs services were merged, were formed the Central Committee and the Court of Cassation. He also opened The University of Iasi on October 26, 1860.Monstrous coalition, consisted in plotters and people that were against Cuza government obligated him to abdicate in the night of February 22 1866. They believed that he wanted to make a personal government. Because Cuza he did not take action against plotters and admitted he would surrender the throne to a foreign principle he`s abdication could be done. Cuza leaved the country and took refuge in a locality close to Vienna. He passed away because of ill health at 53, on May 15, 1873. His coffin was put on Three Hierarchy Church from Iasi.

Alexandru Ioan Cuza remained in Romania’s history and memory as the first person who founded the modern state.

Princess Margaret of Romania is the first daughter of King Michael I and Queen Ana (Princess de Bourbon-Parma). Today, she is the Custodian of the Romanian Crown. On March 2016, King Michael I retires from public life and let all his public actions to be fulfilled by Princess Margaret. Princess Margaret establishes a foundation that bears his name, makes charity and loves cookery.

Royal Family of Romania or Romanian Dynasty (also known as Romanian Royal House) is a regal institution that represents Romania in public plan. In this institution take part members appointed by Royal Family that need to respect the special legal document – “Fundamental Rules of the Royal Family of Romania”. A simple blood kinship is not enough for a person to be part of the Royal House. He or she need to receive a regal title from the Head of the Family and respects the nation’s law.

Romanian Royal House is part of the Imperial Family of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. Romanian Royal Family is affiliated with all great European regal families such as Britain Royal Family (Windsor dynasty), Greece Regal Family or France Regal Family (Bourbon dynasty).

Princess Margaret is born on March 26, 1949 in Switzerland and all her childhood is divided between Denmark, Greece, Great Britain and of course, Switzerland. She studies Sociology in University of Edinburgh from England and works for about 10 years in Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. She gives up and goes in Romania with her father to support the Romanian causes, thing than she make even today.

In 1990 Princess Margaret together with her father opens the “Princess Margaret” Foundation which is dedicate to all persons with physical and material problems by any age. Her Majesty goes with Michael I in his tournaments from 1997 and 2002 to support Romania to become member in NATO and European Union.

On September 21, 1996 she marries Radu Duda and since 2001 they live at Elisabeth Palace from Bucharest. Princess Margaret receives the following decorations: Grand Cross of the Carol I Order (1996), Grand Cross of Romanian Crown Order (2011), Great Cross of Malta Order (2003), Knight of the “Legion of Honour” by the French Republic (2009), and Great Cross of Portugal’s Saint Isabel Order (2012).

Princess Margaret is Doctor Honorius Causa of: University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine King Michael from Timisoara, Academy of Economic Studies in Chisinau and Pitesti University. Nowadays, she represents Romania as a diplomat. On November 24, 2016 Romanians celebrated 150 years from the establishment of Regal House of Romania.

Burebista was a Thracian king of the Getae and Dacian tribes from 82/61 BC to 44 BC. He was the first king who magnificently unified the tribes of the Dacian kingdom.

The Dacian kingdom comprises the area located between the Danube, Tisza and Dniester rivers and covering modern day Romania.

As king Burebista followed both reform and conquest. His good friend and second command, Deceneus, was responsible for the expansion of religious and social reform. Making a caste of priests, brought about moderation into the Dacian kingdom, and incorporated the tribes. During this time Burebista built a structure of fortresses throughout the Orastie Mountains and moved the capital from Argedava to Sarmizegetusa. These fortresses were made of a Greek military manner. Their purpose was to protect the obedience of the Dacian peoples internally.

Dacia was an undefeated territory during the reign of Burebista. He led a policy of conquest of new territories. Also, Burebista was known as brave warrior who led troops in several battles. He attacked and vanquished the Celtic tribes of Boii and Taurisci, who lived along the Middle Danube and in what is now Slovakia. Burebista conquers the Black Sea shore, subjugating the Greek fortresses from Olbia to Apollonia, as well as the Danubian Plain all the way to the Balkans. The only Greek polis with which Burebista had good relations was Dionysopolis.

Burebista extended his kingdom from west to east, from the Vltava to the Bug rives and further north into Transcarpathia, known today as modern Ukraine.

When Burebista became king, he made one of the most vital reforms in those times. Dacians were exhausted of wars, and he imposed a reform that regulated the moral and religious life the Geto-Dacian people, rides them through exercise, abstaining from wine and agreement to his commands. Following these reforms, the kingdom soon became influential and subjugated new vast territories. In all these movements Burebista had been guided and assisted by the Great Priest Deceneu, which Burebista granted him the title of viceroy, agreeing to Jordanes.

Burebista was murdered in a conspiracy made by the tribal aristocracy, which felt that an alliance towards a centralized state would diminish their authority. After his death, the empire was dissolved, with the exception of the basis around the Orastie Mountains. The other tribes were separated into several realms. When Augustus Caesar sent an army against the Getae, the previous state of Burebista was separated into four states.

In the time after Burebista’s death and among the rule of Domitian and Tiberius, Dacian activity was reduced. The Dacians were forced into a defensive state where their main activity was keeping Romans out of Dacian territories.

Burebista is considered one of the most powerful people on Dacia’s land, and he will never be forgotten by Romanians. Today, the Dacian Fortresses of Orastie Mountains are part of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

King Ferdinand I is part of the Romanian Royal Family that loved and respected Romania and its people. He serves his country at the best which brings him the name “The Loyal Ferdinand”. Man with a vast culture led Romania into a blooming period.

Prince Ferdinand Viktor Albert Meinrad von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen is born on August 24, 1865 as the son of Principle Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Princess Antonia by Saxa-Coburg-Gotha. Principle Leopold is the big brother of King Carol I, the first king that Romania had. Ferdinand I studies at Military School from Kassel, University of Leipzig, University of Bonn and School of Political Science and Economics in Tübingen. Among his passions are the science of Botanical and foreign languages.

In 1881, at the age of 15 he visits Romania for the first time and stays at Cotroceni Palace. On November 14, 1886 he becomes the sub-lieutenant of Romanian Army in The Regiment 3. For 38 years Ferdinand I is part of Romanian Army passing from to the rank of lieutenant to the marshal.

In November 1888, at the age of 23 Ferdinand I become the Crown Principle of Romania. On April 19, 1889 Principle Ferdinand I enter in Romania and is hosted by his uncle Carol I and his aunt Queen Elisabeth. Ferdinand I is changed into military captain on May 10, 1891 at the anniversary of Carol I.

On January 10, 1893 he marries Princess Marry of Great Britain and Ireland at Sigmaringen. They have six kids: Carol, Elisabeta, Marioara, Nicolae, Ileana and Mircea. The regal family stays at Cotroceni Palace.

He becomes the King of Romania on October 10, 1914 after the death of King Carol I. Ferdinand I loves and admires Romania and for its people he changes his Catholic religion into Christian-Orthodox religion.

King Ferdinand I has the same purpose as the Romanian people: the unification of the United Romania. He enters in the First World War as Entente alley (Great Britain, France, Russia) and against the Central Powers. Because of this Ferdinand I is excluded by Regal House of Hohenzollern by the Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany. As a result, at the finish of the war is formed the national unitary state by the union of Bessarabia, Bucovina and Transylvania with the Old Kingdom. Furthermore, Ferdinand I become the first king of Great Romania on October 15, 1922.

From this moment Romania developed as a united country and approved the application of the Agrarian Reform and universal vote.

His son, Principle Carol II gave up the Romania throne on 1925 and this incident burst the “crisis dynasty”. This situation determines Ferdinand I to exclude Carol II from Romania Crown and puts his nephew, Michael I as a Royal Successor.

King Ferdinand I die by cancer on June 20, 1927 at Sinaia and is buried at Curtea de Arges Monastery, like other members of the Romanian royal family. From this moment Principle Michael I become the third King of Romania, under regency, being very young.

Romania is proud to be the mother country of so many exquisite writers, poets, playwrights and other geniuses in the world of literature. Here is a list of the five most important and much valued Romanian writers.

Ion Creanga was a Moldavian writer who is best known for his volume “Childhood Memories”. Born in 1837, he was a main figure of the 19th Romanian literature until his death in 1889 and a hugely valued national writer afterwards. His genre was vast, from novellas, satires or memories to children’s literature, fantasy and even erotic literature, all of which are seen as Romanian humorist masterpieces. His debut in literature did not come early, as Creanga was actually a priest leading an eccentric lifestyle, thereafter becoming an educator and a politician. If you want to see how the famous writer lived, visit Ion Creanga Memorial Museum in Targu Neamt or his Memorial House in Iasi.

Mihai Eminescu was a Romantic poet. Born in 1850, the revolutionary poet lived only 39 years. Considered the most famous and influential poet of Romania, Mihai Eminescu began writing poetry at the age of 16 as Mihail Eminovici. The national poet delivered an inestimable treasure of verse for which he is considered one of the greatest poets in the world of literature. His most famous work is Luceafarul, a dramatic idyll between an astral spirit and an earthly woman. Make sure you visit the national poet’s Memorial House from Ipotesti, Botosani, where he grew up.

George Cosbuc was a poet, translator and teacher. Regarded as a master of verse, his most appraised works are those depicting and praising the rural life. His writings were used in the communist era to propagandize the relationship between the laboring class and the peasants. Visit his memorial house in the village named after him, Cosbuc (Hordou during his life) in Bistrita-Nasaud.

Octavian Goga was a poet, playwright and amazingly, a politician. He was the prime minister of Romania between 1937 and 1938. His most renowned writings were probably “Mesterul Manole” and “Mr. Notary”. Octavian Goga rests as a controversial figure even today, as his writings are obviously exquisite but his fascist and anti-Semitic beliefs were widely disputed. His last residence was in Ciucea, on a cliff right by the highway between Cluj and Oradea. Make sure you visit the Octavian Goga Memorial House as the large domain exhibits the life of the poet as well as the typical lifestyle of the Romanians in the 1920s.

Tudor Arghezi was a poet, novelist and short story writer of the early 20th Arghezi is probably the most outstanding figure of the literature written between the two world wars. His writing was thought to be revolutionary for those times, with unusual lyrical structures made to shock conventional thinking. His most famous works are “Flori de mucigai”, known for the aesthetic of the grotesque found within, the universe of small things found in “Cuvinte Potrivite” or his religious views rendered in “Testament” or the “Psalms”. Visit the memorial house of the major literary figure Tudor Arghezi in Bucharest, on Martisorului Street.

 

Born on October 25, 1921 Michael is one of the few living former heads of Romania during the Second World War. He ruled between July 20, 1927 – June 8, 1930 and September 6, 1940 – December 30, 1947.

Michael is the first King that rule at the age of 6 under a regency.

He is the son of Carol II and Princess Elena of Greece and Denmark and is also the descendant of one the most important royal and imperial families of Europe. Michael I is the great grandson of Queen Victoria of Great Britain and the third cousin of Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain. He is crowned king in 1927 after the death of his grandfather Ferdinand I, after his father – Carol II – gave up the throne since 1925. He has 6 years old so he is not able to lead a country, in consequence all his royal duties are performed by a regency.

His father Carol II comes back at the throne and Michael receives the created title “Great Voivode of Alba-Iulia”. For a long time, he could see his mother only few week per year. His mother’s exile at Florence deprives him from family affection, but instead, he receives a good education.

The new prime-minister Ion Antonescu obliges the Carol II to abdicate on September 6, 1940 and leaves Romania. Now the throne returns for the second time to Michael I. Under the authoritarian regime of Antonescu, King Michael I has no real power of decision. Furthermore, he is not informed about the fact that Romania enters in the war as side of Nazi Germany. Being in this situation, he decides to save what he can save so he gives a coup at August 23, 1944. He arrests Ion Antonescu and restores the Constitution from 1923.

Without the support of America and Great Britain, King Michael I is required to appoint Petru Groza in government on February 1945. Because he didn’t accept this situation, King Michael I makes a royal strike, refuses to sign the Government’s decrees, but the Government continued its activity.

On December 30, 1947 he is forced to sign the abdication decree and in the same day Romania follows the steps to become a Popular Republic. He leaves the country on January 1948 and tries to plead the cause of his country, but without any success.

On June 1948 Michael marries Princess Anne of Bourbon-Parma and moves to Versoix in Switzerland. The royal couple has five daughters: princesses Margareta, Elena, Irina, Sofia and Maria.

In 1997 he receives back his Romanian citizenship and some of his families properties are returned. From that moment the Royal House of Romania makes lobby for Romania at an international level. In 2016, he retires and leaves all the duties of the crown to his daughter – princess Margareta of Romania. 

Carol II is a controversial king of Romania that ruled between June 8, 1930 and September 6, 1940. He gives up three times the Romanian throne, although in his rule times Romania had the biggest economic boom from the interwar period.

He is born in October 3, 1893 in Sinaia as the first son of Ferdinand I and his wife Queen Mary. At birth, he acquires the title of Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. From his childhood he learns about the history and the geography of Romania. His big passion remains books and military, and that’s why he attended the Military Academy in Potsdam.

In 1914, his father Ferdinand I becomes the King of Romania and Carol is now as the Crown Prince. In the First World War, Carol II is a Romanian army officer, but in 1918 deserts from the front and gets married with Ioana Lambrino, also known as Zizi. The Royal Family separates Carol II and Zizi and obligate Carol II to go back to the front against Hungarian troops. This context produces the second renunciation of Carol II at the throne; he elaborates two letters, one for Zizi Lambrino on which he accepts that is her husband and the father of his unborn child. The second letter is for his father to make him known about the decision he made.

After the illegal marriage annulment from 1918, King Ferdinand sends Carol II on a trip around the world. He visits: the Ottoman Empire, Egypt, India, Singapore, China, Japan, the United States, Britain, France and Switzerland. As a result of the Prince visits, many countries opened diplomatic relations with Romania.

On March 1921, Carol II marries Her Royal Highness Princess Elena of Greece and Denmark in the city of Athena. Before this dynastic marriage, the engaged couple visit Romania and win the public’s sympathy and popularity. On December 25, 1921 is born his first son, Prince Michael (Romanian: Mihai) in Arbor Castle from Sinaia.

Four years later, on December 28, 1925 Carol II gives up the throne for the third time; he returns in France under the name Carol Caraiman. After the death of King Ferinand in 1927, Michael I takes the throne. Three years later, Carol II is interested again to rule Romania and comes back on June 6, 1930, being proclaimed king two days later. He supports the real values of Romanian culture promoted by his Foundation for Literature and Art “King Charles II”, that publishes important works, give prizes and also scholarships.

During the reign of King Carol II promotes big names of Romanian culture and science such as: Mircea Eliade, Constantin Brancusi, Constantin Noica. Also in his times many industries records an impressive growth. Starting with February, 1938 King Carol II establishes a monarchic authority regime after the example of other European countries. The general disorder from Romania country determines the king to put Ion Antonescu the prime minister with full powers.

On September 6, 1940 King Carol II abdicates and lets his son Michael I to become the Romanian King, for the second time. King Michael I was the last king of Romania. Carol II lives his last years by travelling accompanied by Elena Lupescu. He passes away on April 3, 1953 in Lisbon, Portugal. In 2003 his remains returns in Romania in the chapel of Curtea de Arges Monastery.

The unifier of the principalities of Romania, Alexandru Ioan Cuza, was forced to abdicate in 1866 and he was replaced with a prince of the German Empire, Charles of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, who quickly changed his name in the Romanian correspondent: Carol.

The new Constitution in June 1866, Carol realized he would have limited prerogatives, which he found hard to accept. In addition to this, Romanians didn’t really like their new prince, as they were skeptical towards foreigners and towards his mistakes that he made in his first years, but Carol’s will gain more sympathy during the Independence War against the Ottomans, as he was greatly involved in the war, and lead the country to independence; an independence after which Romania is proclaimed into a Kingdom with Prince Carol as first King of Romania in 1881.

King Carol had the longest reign in Romania’s history, 48 years in which the greatly secured the image of the country, guaranteeing political stability and development.

In 1889, he appoints his nephew Ferdinand as heir apparent, because Carol and Elizabeth’s, his wife, only child died at the age of 4.

The controversies over whose part should Romania take in the incoming First World War overwhelmed the old Carol. The tragedy of war led Carol to die at 75 years of age, in 1914.

His successor, Ferdinand I, takes Carol’s place in times of trouble. The heads of state along with Carol previously settled Romania’s path of neutrality in the World War I, but the politicians knew they will be forced to join one side. Unlike Carol I, Ferdinand did not insist on joining his country of origin, Germany, as he was rather influenced by his English wife, Mary, who was absolutely sure that the Allied Powers would win. Therefore, Ferdinand joins France, England and Russia hoping it will bring the union with Transylvania. In the end, the regions of Bessarabia, Bucovina and Banat were handed over and finally Transylvania was united with Romania, creating Greater Romania.

Ferdinand lost much of his popularity after his sympathy towards Ion I.C. Bratianu, leader of the National Liberal Party. Ironically, the two died in the same year, 1927, just months apart, leaving the country in front of new challenges.

The throne was meant to go to Carol II, Ferdinand’s eldest son. Carol II was quite a controversial prince, with his many flings and 2 marriages of two “normal” women, outside of the royal cast. After his annulled marriage with Zizi Lambrino, Carol II is pressured to marry Elena of Greece. In 1921, Michael I is born, at the same time Carol begins his second affair with Elena Lupescu.

Carol II renounces the throne and runs away with Lupescu, and as Michael I was heir apparent, he accedes to the throne at the age of 6, in 1927, after the death of Ferdinand. Carol returns to the throne after three years and will have a different reign from those of his predecessors, with his personality cult as the center of Romania. Carol II gives himself more power through replacing the Constitution in 1938.

What put an end to Carol II’s reign is losing Bessarabia, Bucovina, Transylvania and Dobruja in 1940. This fall of Greater Romania forced him to abdicate and the throne went to Michael I, who was then 19 years old.

Young Michael I was again kept away from political affairs, signing off general Antonescu for full powers to govern. The King played an important role in removing the authoritarian and Nazi-oriented Antonescu government, struggling to reinstate democracy. He was heavily confronted by the rising Communist Party and forced to abdicate and exiled in 1947.

Queen Mary is known as “The Soldier Queen” or the “Mother of wounded”, because of her massive implication in helping injured person in the First World War. Maria Alexandra Victoria by Saxa-Coburg and Gotha (aka Queen Mary) is born in Great Britain, on October 29, 1875.

The Queen is the first daughter of Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia and Prince Alfred of Great Britain. At the age of 17, young Mary marries Prince Ferdinand I and becomes the Queen of Romania. Ferdinand I of Romania was King of the Romanians from 10 October 1914 until his death in 1927, after he became his uncle`s heir – Carol I.

In 30 years of marriage, Queen Mary gives birth to Carol II, Princess Elisabeth, Princess Maria, Prince Nicolae and little Mircea.

She is considered one of the most beautiful women from Europe with a big heart. People loved Queen Mary because she became a nurse in the First World War and courageously coped with this role. She crosses the Danube Delta just to see how Romanian soldiers feel, as in the year of 1913, erupts a cholera epidemic. When she came back home she obtains her husband permission to develop a help camp there.

Furthermore, Queen Mary of Romania influences all the decision that her husband, Ferdinand I, takes. Also, she gets involved in social and political actions even if in those times, women had an insignificant role in politics.

From 1930 to her death, Queen Mary lives isolated most of the time in Bran Castle or in the city of Balchik. At Bran Castle she has an active factor in the building of “Queen Heart” Hospital, built at the base of the Bran Castle. This is the place where were she is taking care of all harmed soldiers from war.

In 1938 Queen Mary is diagnosed with an “incurable disease”: liver cancer, and her family hospitalizes her in sanatoriums from Italy and Germany. Because she wants to die in Romania, she asks her son, Carol II – the king of Romania – to send her home by a plane. The relationships between the queen and her son Carol II were not cordials, and he didn’t accept her request. Hitler offers his own private plane for her, but she refuses his offer. Queen Mary took the train, returns home and dies at Pelisor Castle at the age of 63.

Queen Mary deceases on July 18, 1938 at Sinaia, the date being announced by King Carol II. She is buried with splendor and dress in a simple white dress, as she desired. Those who take part to her funeral dress in violet clothes – her favorite color, and brought red flower as a final tribute.  She is the grandmother of the last King of Romanians – Michael I.

In her testament, Queen Mary writes her desire to place her heart in a cassette and deposit it in the Stella Maris Church, near her villa from Balchik city. Because Romania lost this territory in 1940, the cassette is brought to Bran Castle.

From 1971 to 2015 the cassette with Queen’s heart is placed in the National Museum of History from Bucharest. At the end of 2015, the cassette was moved to Pelisor Castle. The event celebrates 140 years since the birth of Queen Mary.

 

Carol I was the King of Romanian Principalities and Romania country and he was deliberated the man that modernize the Romanian state. He became king after Alexadru Ioan Cuza was forced to abdicate. His complete name was Karl Eitel Friedrich Zephyrinus Ludwig von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and was born on April 20, 1839.Carol I was the second son of Principle Karl Anton von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (September 7, 1811–June 2, 1885) and the Princess Josephine Frederica Louise of Baden (October 21, 1813- 1900).

His father was part of the old German dynasty of Hohenzollern mentioned for the first time in the 11th century. Carol I had three brothers and two sisters: Prince Leopold (1835-1905), Principle Anton (1841-1866), Prince Friedrich (1843-1904), Princesses Stephanie (1837-1859) and Marie Louise (1845–1912).

He was the personality that transformed Romania in an Independent and Sovereign State. During his sovereign Romania started to have institutions and to be modernized. He reigned for 48 years and in this time he transformed Romania in a constitutional monarchy and started to strengthen the Romanian modern state.

Taking into consideration his activities, most of the historians consider Carol I a greatest statesman of Romania. Internally he introduced a climate of order, discipline and rigor because he knew that this can maintain the modernity of economic structures. He also showed interest for development of education, culture, and for training the younger generation of intellectuals. Externally, he acted to proclaim autonomy and establishment the international prestige of the Romanian state.

To avoid anti-dynastic attacks he was pierced by an exemplary personal life guided by accuracy and fairness. He didn’t accept royal chambers and didn’t let Queen Elisabeth to enter in political matters. Because of this matter the Queen devoted her time to folk art, music and literature and she also published poems and translations under the name “Carmen Sylva”.

Carol I was sure that his role was to civilize this state and educate the generations to come. Carol I deceased on October 10, 1914 at Sinaia but will always remain in people’s memory like the creator of Modern Romania. He was enchanted by the beauty of Sinaia and the surrounding areas, and he built there a beautiful royal residence – Peles Castle, visited today by millions of people.