The region of Transylvania is located in the heart of Romania and is bounded by the beautiful Carpathian Mountains. This is the largest region of Romania and is full of delightful sceneries. It is deliberated the cradle of nation, because of its impressive fortresses and castles build by their ancestors – the Dacians. Transylvania is gifted with a large number of tourist attractions and various activities to do. It is a combination between rural and medieval, because every small village still uses the ancestral procedures for land cultivation, collecting hay for animals.

The name of Transylvania comes from the Latin expression “Trans Silva” which means “Country beyond the forests” for its forests that covers the mountains.  First people that stepped here were the Celts, and after them came that Dacian society who built the fortresses and capitals, still kept until now in Orastie Mountains.

Sarmizegetusa Regia was the most important capital of Dacian Empire. Wars between Dacian and Roman Empire made Traian emperor the winner of this area for a long period of time. After Roman Empire, Hungarians made Transylvania part of their territory. Also, during time, the Ottoman Empire tried to win this region, but they never succeeded. Starting with the 14th century this region was transformed in Transylvania Principality, being recognized as an independent state. On December 1, 1918, Transylvania is united with other principalities and together become the Romania country. Wonderful region of Transylvania has great cities that deserve to be discovered year around.

Alba Iulia is a lovely city that is located in Transylvania region. Alba Carolina Citadel is the most fascinating place for tourist to visit, especially after 12 PM when Austrian guards from III Gate are changing and during weekends when are wince bursts of smoke. Tourists can go on the Three Fortifications Route from which can discover: Mint gate Principality of Transylvania, Artillery platform, South Gate Camp Roman military camp. In the fortress travellers can see the Union Hall, the place where was signed the Act of Union of Transylvania with Romania, in 1918 and Union Museum. Also here is the cell of Horea where he needed to stay before he was executed; about him tourists can find more information from Romanian Heroes Route.

Cluj-Napoca is the biggest city located in the heart of Transylvania. Here visitors can discover the Orthodox cathedral decorate with fancy reliefs carves in stone, geometrical and floral motifs. The edifice attractions are the old books, manuscripts, documents about church history, and the past of the Romanian people. Saint Michael Church in an edifice built on the old Saint Jacob chapel. It’s imposing by its Gothic style and mural pictures from the 15th century. Visitors can see on this church a statue of a child without had.

Sibiu is a great city from Transylvania that deserves to be discovered. It’s easy because here travelers don’t need cars because the most important edifices are in the city’s historical center. People can visit the Union Square and the Three Towers: Potters Tower, Gunsmiths Tower and Carpenters Tower; all of them are part of the third fortified enclosures of the city. The Big Square for the old historical center is full of souvenirs, because this is the place where events like Easter and Christmas festivities take place.

Region of Transylvania has cities, fortresses, citadels, nature landscapes and many other things which can satisfy all travelers’ needs.

The Alba Carolina Fortress, located on the Citadel Hill in Alba Iulia, the city of the Great Unification, is the most representative Baroque, star shaped fortress in Romania and also one of the vastest in the East of Europe.

It was built in the 18th century, between 1714 and 1738. It amazingly encloses two preexisting fortresses. The first one to be erected was the Roman Castrum of the 13th Legion Gemina, in 106AD.  Second came the Medieval Citadel of Belgrade, built between the 16th and 17th century.

The architect who designed the Vauban-type edifice (Alba Carolina, Alba Iulia) was Giovanni Morando Visconti, having 20.000 servants execute his concept. At the same time the constructions started, the work was dedicated to the Emperor Charles VI. After it was finished, it served as the military base of Transylvania and also as a weaponry warehouse, both meant to ban Turkish invaders from getting to Central Europe. By nature, the Alba Carolina Fortress became obsolete in the 20th century.

The wall that embraces the fortification is 12 kilometers long. The seven bastions, each named after a Saint, form Alba Carolina into a shape of a star. Such an impressive aerial view!

The construction of the fortress implied an immense volume of works, adding a sewerage system, a mill, wells, warehouses and all other essentials for 10.000 soldiers.

The fortress has six imposing gates, unique in European military architecture. The gateways are extravagantly embellished with statues and magnificent ornaments, by virtue of which they are considered samples of extreme value.

The First Gate, situated in the East of the Fortress Ensemble, is shaped as a triumphal arch. The facades are adorned with ancient mythology figures, such as Hercules, Aeneas and Perseus.

The Second Gate is made out of two square poles with flowery and leafy decorations.

The Third Gate represents the main entrance in the fortification and is the most important statuesque work of Alba Carolina. The edifice has an abundant decor, illustrating battle scenes, weapons, trophies, coats of arms and other military affairs. On its Eastern part there is an equestrian statue of Charles VI. The interior facade features statues symbolizing abundance, wisdom, moderation and power.

The Fourth Gate is situated on the western side and is decorated only on the inside. The inspiration for this gateway was also of mythological and military sense, displaying weapons, flags and a personification of wrath.

The Fifth Gate is not an ornamental one, but rather a tunnel, not far from the Fourth Gate, to which it’s connected through a wooden bridge.

The Sixth and final Gate, is made out of two adorned stone pillars. It connects to the Fifth Gate through a spectacular narrow passage.

The complexity of each of these gates can be observed during en detail tour of the Fortress’ Gates, from East to West.

Once these gates entered, the tourist will discover that there’s even more to Alba Carolina.

Some of the most meaningful interior buildings are the Batthyaneum Library, Apor Palace, Babylon Building, now National History Museum of Unification, Union Hall, and the Princely Palace.

The Alba Carolina fortress (cetatea Alba Carolina) encloses a myriad of edifices, which give the atmosphere of an actual city, perfectly preserved for centuries on end.