King Ferdinand I is part of the Romanian Royal Family that loved and respected Romania and its people. He serves his country at the best which brings him the name “The Loyal Ferdinand”. Man with a vast culture led Romania into a blooming period.

Prince Ferdinand Viktor Albert Meinrad von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen is born on August 24, 1865 as the son of Principle Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Princess Antonia by Saxa-Coburg-Gotha. Principle Leopold is the big brother of King Carol I, the first king that Romania had. Ferdinand I studies at Military School from Kassel, University of Leipzig, University of Bonn and School of Political Science and Economics in Tübingen. Among his passions are the science of Botanical and foreign languages.

In 1881, at the age of 15 he visits Romania for the first time and stays at Cotroceni Palace. On November 14, 1886 he becomes the sub-lieutenant of Romanian Army in The Regiment 3. For 38 years Ferdinand I is part of Romanian Army passing from to the rank of lieutenant to the marshal.

In November 1888, at the age of 23 Ferdinand I become the Crown Principle of Romania. On April 19, 1889 Principle Ferdinand I enter in Romania and is hosted by his uncle Carol I and his aunt Queen Elisabeth. Ferdinand I is changed into military captain on May 10, 1891 at the anniversary of Carol I.

On January 10, 1893 he marries Princess Marry of Great Britain and Ireland at Sigmaringen. They have six kids: Carol, Elisabeta, Marioara, Nicolae, Ileana and Mircea. The regal family stays at Cotroceni Palace.

He becomes the King of Romania on October 10, 1914 after the death of King Carol I. Ferdinand I loves and admires Romania and for its people he changes his Catholic religion into Christian-Orthodox religion.

King Ferdinand I has the same purpose as the Romanian people: the unification of the United Romania. He enters in the First World War as Entente alley (Great Britain, France, Russia) and against the Central Powers. Because of this Ferdinand I is excluded by Regal House of Hohenzollern by the Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany. As a result, at the finish of the war is formed the national unitary state by the union of Bessarabia, Bucovina and Transylvania with the Old Kingdom. Furthermore, Ferdinand I become the first king of Great Romania on October 15, 1922.

From this moment Romania developed as a united country and approved the application of the Agrarian Reform and universal vote.

His son, Principle Carol II gave up the Romania throne on 1925 and this incident burst the “crisis dynasty”. This situation determines Ferdinand I to exclude Carol II from Romania Crown and puts his nephew, Michael I as a Royal Successor.

King Ferdinand I die by cancer on June 20, 1927 at Sinaia and is buried at Curtea de Arges Monastery, like other members of the Romanian royal family. From this moment Principle Michael I become the third King of Romania, under regency, being very young.

The unifier of the principalities of Romania, Alexandru Ioan Cuza, was forced to abdicate in 1866 and he was replaced with a prince of the German Empire, Charles of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, who quickly changed his name in the Romanian correspondent: Carol.

The new Constitution in June 1866, Carol realized he would have limited prerogatives, which he found hard to accept. In addition to this, Romanians didn’t really like their new prince, as they were skeptical towards foreigners and towards his mistakes that he made in his first years, but Carol’s will gain more sympathy during the Independence War against the Ottomans, as he was greatly involved in the war, and lead the country to independence; an independence after which Romania is proclaimed into a Kingdom with Prince Carol as first King of Romania in 1881.

King Carol had the longest reign in Romania’s history, 48 years in which the greatly secured the image of the country, guaranteeing political stability and development.

In 1889, he appoints his nephew Ferdinand as heir apparent, because Carol and Elizabeth’s, his wife, only child died at the age of 4.

The controversies over whose part should Romania take in the incoming First World War overwhelmed the old Carol. The tragedy of war led Carol to die at 75 years of age, in 1914.

His successor, Ferdinand I, takes Carol’s place in times of trouble. The heads of state along with Carol previously settled Romania’s path of neutrality in the World War I, but the politicians knew they will be forced to join one side. Unlike Carol I, Ferdinand did not insist on joining his country of origin, Germany, as he was rather influenced by his English wife, Mary, who was absolutely sure that the Allied Powers would win. Therefore, Ferdinand joins France, England and Russia hoping it will bring the union with Transylvania. In the end, the regions of Bessarabia, Bucovina and Banat were handed over and finally Transylvania was united with Romania, creating Greater Romania.

Ferdinand lost much of his popularity after his sympathy towards Ion I.C. Bratianu, leader of the National Liberal Party. Ironically, the two died in the same year, 1927, just months apart, leaving the country in front of new challenges.

The throne was meant to go to Carol II, Ferdinand’s eldest son. Carol II was quite a controversial prince, with his many flings and 2 marriages of two “normal” women, outside of the royal cast. After his annulled marriage with Zizi Lambrino, Carol II is pressured to marry Elena of Greece. In 1921, Michael I is born, at the same time Carol begins his second affair with Elena Lupescu.

Carol II renounces the throne and runs away with Lupescu, and as Michael I was heir apparent, he accedes to the throne at the age of 6, in 1927, after the death of Ferdinand. Carol returns to the throne after three years and will have a different reign from those of his predecessors, with his personality cult as the center of Romania. Carol II gives himself more power through replacing the Constitution in 1938.

What put an end to Carol II’s reign is losing Bessarabia, Bucovina, Transylvania and Dobruja in 1940. This fall of Greater Romania forced him to abdicate and the throne went to Michael I, who was then 19 years old.

Young Michael I was again kept away from political affairs, signing off general Antonescu for full powers to govern. The King played an important role in removing the authoritarian and Nazi-oriented Antonescu government, struggling to reinstate democracy. He was heavily confronted by the rising Communist Party and forced to abdicate and exiled in 1947.

Carol I was the King of Romanian Principalities and Romania country and he was deliberated the man that modernize the Romanian state. He became king after Alexadru Ioan Cuza was forced to abdicate. His complete name was Karl Eitel Friedrich Zephyrinus Ludwig von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and was born on April 20, 1839.Carol I was the second son of Principle Karl Anton von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (September 7, 1811–June 2, 1885) and the Princess Josephine Frederica Louise of Baden (October 21, 1813- 1900).

His father was part of the old German dynasty of Hohenzollern mentioned for the first time in the 11th century. Carol I had three brothers and two sisters: Prince Leopold (1835-1905), Principle Anton (1841-1866), Prince Friedrich (1843-1904), Princesses Stephanie (1837-1859) and Marie Louise (1845–1912).

He was the personality that transformed Romania in an Independent and Sovereign State. During his sovereign Romania started to have institutions and to be modernized. He reigned for 48 years and in this time he transformed Romania in a constitutional monarchy and started to strengthen the Romanian modern state.

Taking into consideration his activities, most of the historians consider Carol I a greatest statesman of Romania. Internally he introduced a climate of order, discipline and rigor because he knew that this can maintain the modernity of economic structures. He also showed interest for development of education, culture, and for training the younger generation of intellectuals. Externally, he acted to proclaim autonomy and establishment the international prestige of the Romanian state.

To avoid anti-dynastic attacks he was pierced by an exemplary personal life guided by accuracy and fairness. He didn’t accept royal chambers and didn’t let Queen Elisabeth to enter in political matters. Because of this matter the Queen devoted her time to folk art, music and literature and she also published poems and translations under the name “Carmen Sylva”.

Carol I was sure that his role was to civilize this state and educate the generations to come. Carol I deceased on October 10, 1914 at Sinaia but will always remain in people’s memory like the creator of Modern Romania. He was enchanted by the beauty of Sinaia and the surrounding areas, and he built there a beautiful royal residence – Peles Castle, visited today by millions of people.

The Peles Castle was built between 1873 and 1914, on the initiative of the first king of Romania, Carol I, by the architects: Johannes Schultz, Carol Benesch and Karel Liman, and it was decorated by famous decorators J. D. Heymann from Hamburg, August Bembé from Mainz and Bernhard Ludwig from Vienna.

The Peles Castle has a unique character, and by its historical and artistic value it’s one of the most important monuments in Europe, built on the second part of the XIX century.

Prince Carol elected as prince of Romania in 1866, visited Sinaia at that time a small mountain village called Neagului Bridge, the Peles castle’s home, first time in the same year, and he was enchanted by the beauty of this place and he decided to build here a castle. A few years later in 1872 the prince buys a land here and in 1873 around 3000 workers are preparing the land and area for the castle to be, under the close supervision of the prince himself.

In 1875 starts the construction of the castle. Under the first stones the put dozens of gold coins of 20 lei, the first Romanian coins with the image of Carol I.

1883 is the year of the official inauguration of the Castle, and in the eyes of Carol I the Peles is the “headquarter “ of the new dynasty. The castle location was not accidental, not far from here at Predeal was the border of Romania with the Austro-Hungarian, but later after the unification of The Old Kingdom with Transylvania, the castle was placed in the very heart of the country.

Peles gained a growing importance, became the summer residence of the royal family of Romania, who spent considerable time here usually from May to November. Also here were held important political meetings such as the Crown Council from 1914, when Romania decided neutrality in the World War I.

Many important personalities of the time: musicians, painters, poets, king and queens were guest of the Peles Castle.

The most important visit was the one of the Old Austro – Hungarian emperor Franz Joseph in 1896, who was very impressed by the beauty ad richness of the castle.

A simple calculation shows the between 1875 and 1914 with the construction of the castle they spent over 16 million gold-lei.

Even after his inauguration in 1883, Peles was expending constantly. On current form it was reached only in 1914, the year when Carol I died.

The castle has 160 rooms and several staircases and entrances. The central tower measures 66 meters tall. The castle has a theatre hall with a small stage and 60 places plus the royal lodge. All the facilities in the castle was very modern for the time of its construction. For example, the glass ceiling of the hall of honor is mobile and can be driven by an electric motor.

Since 1883, the castle has central heating.Besides the Castle it was also builded Pelisor, The Body Guards, House of Hunting, Stables, Power Plant and Sipot Villa. By the time they finished the construction of the castle in 1883, the King Carol I and Queen Elisabeth lived in the Hunting House.

Due to the Electric Plant built in this area the Peles Castle was the first completely electrified castle in Europe.

Te Castle has a special importance for the history of hour country. Here was born in 1893 the future king Carol II, the first king of the dynasty born on Romanian land and baptized in Orthodox religion. Also, in 1921 was born here his son, King Michael I.

In 1921 at Peles was the wedding of Princess Ileana, sister of Carol II, and are invited here a few of the VIPs of the moment such as Nicolae Iorga also called Voltaire of Romania.

The Peles Castle remain the summer royal residence until 1948, when it was confiscated by the communist regime. In 1953 became a museum. Since 1990 the Peles castle and Pelisor are opend to the public for visits.

It is interesting that Nicolae Ceausescu visited rarely the castle . There were some information that the communist leader Ceausescu wanted to establish here a protocol residence in 1980. Knowing that they had mania to order all kinds of demolition and changes curators have scared them that inside the castle is a fungus that attacks wood elements and is very dangers for the people’s health. In fact the true was that the wooden part of the castle was attacked by a fungus due to moisture. For this reason restoration works have started and it was replaced the structural frame and the hall of honor, and the living room located downstairs. Cautious, the Ceausescu spent one night in the castle.

After the Revolution from 1989 the Peles Castle and Pelisor were reintegrated in the tourist circuits. In 2006 the Romanian government has returned the castle to the former King Michael I.

Although it is privately owned by the Royal House of Romania, King Michael decided to keep it as a museum.

The Peles Castle was and it will be the most important royal edifice from Romania, and one of the most beautiful castle in Europe.