Romania’s topography is very fascinating for one reason; it displays all forms of land in an almost equal percentage. The land forms divided in 31 percent of mountains, 33 percent of hills and 36 of plains spread almost symmetrically throughout the land, from the over 2400 meters high Carpathian Mountains to the almost sea level of the Danube Delta.
The highest form of land is represented by the Carphatian Mountains, which are divided in three sections: the Eastern, the Southern, also called Transylvanian Alps, and the Western Carpathians.
The Eastern Carpathians ensure over 30 percent of Romania’s woodlands and contain huge gold and silver deposits and numerous water springs. The maximum altitude goes over 2000m with Pietrosul Calimanilor and Pietrosul Rodnei peaks.
In the Southern Carpathians there are the highest altitudes, Moldoveanu Peak and Negoie both exceed 2500 meters and over 150 glacial lakes. On the other hand, the Western Carpathians exhibits lower altitudes but many caves, passes, depressions and gorges.
The lower landforms of Romania, with hills, plateaus and plains are: the Transylvanian Plateau, the Wallachian Plain and the Danube Delta.
Located in the center of Romania, the Transylvanian Plateau is enclosed within the Carpathians and is the largest tableland in the country. Here can be found large deposits of salt and methane gas. Other tablelands are the Getic Tableland and Moldavian Tableland located near the Sub-Carpathians, two landforms which provide prosperous conditions for human settlement as it is perfect for fruit growing, viticulture and agriculture.
South from Carpathians lie the Oltenian Plain and the Romanian Plain, which has the Danube Plain to its east, divided only by the Olt River. These form Romania’s most important farming region.
The lowest landform in Romania is the Danube Delta, which is a swampy area of floating islands and sandbanks where the 3000 km long Danube ends and divides into three branches: Chilia, Sulina and Sf. Gheorghe, to thereafter empty into the Black Sea. This UNESCO World Heritage site is a natural preserve for extremely rare species of animals and plants.
The land forms of Romania are under a temperate continental climate in transition, manifested by some oceanic influences by the Black Sea, Scandinavian-Baltic influences in the region of Bucovina–Maramures, and a Mediterranean climate felt on the southern borders of the country. Most of the country experiences a wet temperate continental climate, whereas the Carpathians exhibit a cool continental or even alpine climate.